In EU countries, electronic communications networks and services are governed by Directives and Regulations set by the European Institutions. These create an EU-wide framework (the Common Regulatory Framework) for fixed and wireless telecoms, internet, broadcasting and transmission services.
The Directives are there to encourage competition, which in turn leads to better investment, lower prices and increased quality of service in fixed and mobile networks, and better protection for consumers. They require national regulators to review markets for significant market power (SSMP) every three years and where relevant, to put in place appropriate and proportionate remedies. They also include rules covering spectrum, consumer protection and universal service obligations.