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  Risk factors  

The business of BT is affected by a number of factors, not all of which are wholly within BTís control. Although many of the factors influencing BTís performance are macro economic and likely to affect the performance of businesses generally, some aspects of BTís business make it particularly sensitive to certain areas of business risk. This section highlights some of those specific areas. However, it does not purport to be an extensive analysis of the factors affecting the business and some risks may be unknown to us and other risks, currently believed to be immaterial, could turn out to be material. All of these could materially adversely affect our business, turnover, profits, assets, liquidity and capital resources. They should also be considered in connection with the forward looking statements in this document and the cautionary statement regarding forward-looking statements.

If BTís activities are subject to significant price and other regulatory controls, its market share, competitive position and future profitability may be affected.
Most of BTís fixed network activities in the UK are subject to significant regulatory controls. The controls regulate, among other things, the prices BT may charge for many of its services and the extent to which it has to provide services to its competitors. In recent years, the effect of these controls has been to cause BT to reduce its prices. BT cannot assure its shareholders that the regulatory authorities will not increase the severity of the price controls, nor extend the services to which controls apply (including any new services that BT may offer in the future), nor extend the services which it has to provide it's competitors. These controls may adversely affect BTís market share, the severity of competition and its future profitability. During 2004 Ofcom is undertaking a strategic review of the UK telecommunications market in order to formulate the principles on which it can base its regulatory decisions in the future. This review is scheduled to be completed before the end of 2004. It is not possible to predict the outcome or implications for BT of Ofcomís review. Further details on the regulatory framework in which BT operates can be found in Business Review Ė regulation, competition and prices.

BT faces strong competition in UK fixed network services
BT continues to have a significant market share in some aspects of UK fixed network services. In particular, in the 2004 financial year we estimate we had a market share of 70% of consumer calls and 42% of business calls in the UK. Regulators have promoted competition in this area by allowing BTís competitors to site equipment in or adjacent to its exchanges (local loop unbundling), to make it easier for BTís customers to route some or all of their calls over competitorsí networks (carrier pre-selection) and by the introduction of a wholesale access product (wholesale line rental). Reduction in BTís market share in the fixed network may lead to a fall in BTís turnover and an adverse effect on profitability. Unlike its competitors, BT continues to be obliged by the current regulatory regime to serve customers in the United Kingdom, whether or not such provision of service is economic, and the competitive measures described above may have the effect of accelerating the diversion of its more profitable existing customers without it being able to reduce its costs commensurately. These changes in the regulatory environment and ensuing increased competition on its fixed network may cause adverse effects on its business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

BTís business is dependent on the ability to exploit technological advances quickly and successfully
BT operates in an industry with a recent history of fast technological changes. It expects that new products and technologies will emerge and that existing products and technologies will develop further. BT needs to continually develop its services and products to exploit those next generation technologies. However, BT cannot predict the actual effect of these technological changes on its business or on its ability to provide competitive services. For example there is evidence of substitution by customers using mobile phones for day-to-day voice calls in place of making such calls over the fixed network. Additionally, some calls are now being routed over the internet in place of the traditional switched network. If these trends accelerate, BTís fixed network assets may be used uneconomically and its investment in these assets may not be recovered through profits on fixed-network calls and line rentals. Impairment write-downs may be incurred and margins may decline if fixed costs cannot be reduced in line with falling turnover.

BT is carrying out a transformation strategy, including the targeting of significant growth in new business areas
BT has a strategy to transform its business. This may result in changes to its products, services, markets and culture. If the groupís transformation strategy is unsuccessful there is a risk that the future turnover and profitability will decline. In particular BT has targeted significant growth in new business areas, such as broadband, mobility and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions. In view of the likely level of competition and uncertainties regarding the level of economic activity, there can be no certainty that BT will meet its growth targets in these areas, with a consequential impact on future turnover and profitability.

BTís businesses may be adversely affected if they fail to perform on major contracts
BT has entered into a number of complex and high value services contracts with customers. Failure to manage and meet BTís commitments under these contracts may lead to a reduction in BTís future turnover, profitability and cash generation.

BTís businesses may be adversely affected if their networks or systems experience any significant failures or interruptions
BTís businesses are dependent on their ability to transfer substantial volumes of data speedily and without interruption. Any significant failure or interruption of such data transfer due to factors outside their control could have a material adverse effect on the businesses and their results from operations. BT has a business continuity strategy designed to deal with such catastrophic events, including for example major terrorist action, industrial action, extreme virus attack, hurricane or flooding, that may impact the ability to maintain an effective service to customers. A failure to deliver that strategy may result in a material loss and there can be no assurance that material adverse events will not occur.

Declining investment returns and longer life expectancy may result in the funding cost of the defined benefit pension scheme becoming a significant burden on the financial resources of BT
The defined benefit pension scheme, the BT Pension Scheme (BTPS), was closed to new members on 31 March 2001 and has been replaced by a defined contribution scheme (BTRP). The latest full triennial actuarial valuation of the BTPS was completed as at 31 December 2002. As a result, BT agreed to make normal contributions of 12.2% of pensionable pay and annual deficiency payments of £232 million. This will apply until the next triennial actuarial valuation is completed as at 31 December 2005. In March 2004 a £380 million prepayment of deficiency contributions was made, representing most of the deficiency contributions for the 2005 and 2006 financial years. The results of future scheme valuations will be impacted by the future investment market performance, interest rates and the general trend towards longer life expectancy, all of which are outside the control of BT. In the event that investment returns decline or life expectancy increases, the cash funding cost to BT may increase and may have a significant effect on the financial resources of BT.



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